Diễn đàn Hải Dương học

Giương buồm ra biển lớn !


Định luật Fick về khuếch tán phân tử

Share

tieuminh2510

*****
*****

Tổng số bài gửi : 350
Danh dự : 5
Join date : 15/01/2008
Age : 30

Định luật Fick về khuếch tán phân tử

Bài gửi by tieuminh2510 on Thu Feb 21, 2008 11:37 pm

Fick's law of diffusion
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fick's laws of diffusion describe diffusion and can be used to solve for the diffusion coefficient D. They were derived by Adolf Fick in the year 1855.



First law
Fick's first law is used in steady-state diffusion, i.e., when the concentration within the diffusion volume does not change with respect to time . In one (spatial) dimension, this is


where

  • J is the diffusion flux in dimensions of [(amount of substance) length−2 time-1], example (mol/m2.s)
  • is the diffusion coefficient or diffusivity in dimensions of [length2 time−1], example (m2/s)
  • (for ideal mixtures) is the concentration in dimensions of [(amount of substance) length−3], example (mol/m3)
  • is the position [length], example (m)
is proportional to the velocity of the diffusing particles, which depends on the temperature, viscosity of the fluid and the size of the particles according to the Stokes-Einstein relation.
In dilute aqueous solutions the diffusion coefficients of most ions are similar and have values that at room temperature are in the range of 0.6x10-9 to 2x10-9 m2/s. For biological molecules the diffusion coefficients normally range from 10-11 to 10-10 m2/s.
In two or more dimensions we must use , the del or gradient operator, which generalises the first derivative, obtaining


The driving force for the one-dimensional diffusion is the quantity which for ideal mixtures is the concentration gradient. In chemical systems other than ideal solutions or mixtures, the driving force for
diffusion of each species is the gradient of chemical potential of this species. Then Fick's first law (one-dimensional case) can be written as:


where the index i denotes the ith species, c is the concentration (mol/m3), R is the universal gas constant (J/(K mol)), T is the absolute temperature (K), and μ is the chemical potential (J/mol).

Second law
Fick's second law is used in non-steady or continually changing state diffusion, i.e., when the concentration within the diffusion volume changes with respect to time.


Where

  • is the concentration in dimensions of [(amount of substance) length-3], [mol m-3]
  • is time [s]
  • is the diffusion coefficient in dimensions of [length2 time-1], [m2 s-1]
  • is the position [length], [m]

It can be derived from the Fick's First law and the mass balance:


Assuming the diffusion coefficient D to be a constant we can exchange the orders of the differentiating and multiplying by the constant:


and, thus, receive the form of the Fick's equations as was stated above.
For the case of diffusion in two or more dimensions the Second Fick's Law is:


which is analogous to the heat equation.

If the diffusion coefficient is not a constant, but depends upon the coordinate and/or concentration, the Second Fick's Law becomes:


An important example is the case where φ is at a steady state, i.e. the concentration does not change by time, so that the left part of the above equation is identically zero. In one dimension with constant , the solution for the concentration will be a linear change of concentrations along . In two or more dimensions we obtain
which is Laplace's equation, the solutions to which are called harmonic functions by mathematicians.

References

  • A. Fick, Phil. Mag. (1855), 10, 30.
  • A. Fick, Poggendorff's Annel. Physik. (1855), 94, 59.
  • W.F. Smith, Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill (2004)
  • H.C. Berg, Random Walks in Biology, Princeton (1977)
Notes

  1. ^ Physiology at MCG 3/3ch9/s3ch9_2
External links

  • Diffusion fundamentals
  • Diffusion coefficient
  • Ficks Law Calculator and a host of other science tools - Rex Njoku & Dr.Anthony Steyermark

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fick%27s_law_of_diffusion"

    Hôm nay: Sat Dec 03, 2016 1:08 am