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The Earth's Atmosphere

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The Earth's Atmosphere

Bài gửi by codaipm12 on Sat Jan 09, 2010 11:31 pm

Mình up cuốn The Earth's Atmosphere. Mọi người xem tham khảo: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

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Part I Physics of the Earth’s Atmosphere
1 The Sun and the Earth – The Solar System and the Earth’s Gravitation
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Earth’s Gravitational Force – Gravity
1.3 Geopotential Surfaces
1.4 Motion in the Earth’s Gravitational Field – The Law of Central Forces
2 The Earth’s Atmosphere – Its Origin, Composition and Properties
2.1 Introduction: Origin of the Earth’s Atmosphere
2.2 Composition of the Atmosphere
2.3 Properties and Variables of the Atmosphere
2.3.1 Pressure
2.3.2 Temperature
2.3.3 Density
2.3.4 Other Variables of the Atmosphere
2.3.5 Observing the Atmosphere
2.4 Gas Laws – Equations of State
2.4.1 The Equation of State – General
2.4.2 The Equation of State of an Ideal Gas
2.4.3 The Equation of State of aMixture of Gases
2.4.4 The Equation of State of a Real Gas
3 Heat and Thermodynamics of the Atmosphere
3.1 Introduction. The Nature of Heat and Kinetic Theory
3.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics
3.3 Specific Heats of Gases
3.4 Adiabatic Changes in the Atmosphere
3.4.1 Adiabatic Relationship Between Pressure, Temperature and Volume
3.4.2 Potential Temperature
3.4.3 Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate of Temperature with Height
3.4.4 Static Stability of Dry Air – Buoyancy Oscillations
3.4.5 Adiabatic Propagation of Sound Waves
3.5 The Concept of Entropy
3.6 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
3.6.1 Carnot Engine
3.6.2 Statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
3.7 Thermodynamic Equilibrium of Systems: Thermodynamic Potentials
3.7.1 Free Energy or Helmholtz Potential
3.7.2 Free Enthalpy, or Gibbs’ Potential, or Gibbs Free Energy
3.8 The Third Law of Thermodynamics
3.9 The Atmosphere as a Heat Engine
4 Water Vapour in the Atmosphere: Thermodynamics of Moist Air
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Humidity of the Air – Definitions
4.3 Density ofMoist Air – Virtual Temperature
4.4 Measurement of Humidity – Hygrometers/Psychrometers
4.5 Ascent of Moist Air in the Atmosphere – Pseudo-Adiabatic Process
4.6 Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate of Temperature
4.7 Equivalent Potential Temperature
4.8 Variation of Saturation Vapour Pressure with Temperature
4.8.1 The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
4.8.2 Melting Point of Ice – Variation with Pressure
4.9 Co-existence of the Three Phases of Water – the Triple Point
4.10 Stability of Moist Air
4.10.1 Thermodynamic Diagrams
5 Physics of Cloud and Precipitation
5.1 Introduction – Historical Perspective
5.2 Cloud-Making in the Laboratory – Condensation Nuclei
5.3 Atmospheric Nuclei – Cloud Formation in the Atmosphere
5.4 Drop-Size Distribution in Clouds
5.5 Rate of Fall of Cloud and Rain Drops
5.6 Supercooled Clouds and Ice-Particles – Sublimation
5.7 Clouds in the Sky: Types and Classification
5.8 From Cloud to Rain
5.8.1 Hydrodynamical Attraction
5.8.2 Electrical Attraction
5.8.3 Collision Due to Turbulence
5.8.4 Differences in Size of Cloud Particles
5.8.5 Differences of Temperature Between Cloud Elements
5.8.6 The Ice-Crystal Effect
5.9 Meteorological Evidence – Rainfall from Cold and Warm Clouds
5.9.1 Rainfall from Warm Clouds
5.10 Climatological Rainfall Distribution over the Globe
6 Physics of Radiation – Fundamental Laws
6.1 Introduction – the Nature of Thermal Radiation
6.2 Radiation and Absorption – Heat Exchanges
6.2.1 Conduction
6.2.2 Convection
6.2.3 Radiation
6.3 Properties of Radiation
6.4 Laws of Radiation – Emission and Absorption
6.4.1 Kirchhoff’s Law
6.4.2 Laws of Black Body and Gray Radiation
6.4.3 Stefan-Boltzmann Law
6.4.4 Wien’s Displacement Law
6.4.5 Planck’s Law of Black Body Radiation
6.4.6 Derivation of Wien’s Law and Stefan-Boltzmann Law from Planck’s Law
6.5 Spectral Distribution of Radiant Energy
6.6 Some Practical Uses of Electromagnetic Radiation
7 The Sun and its Radiation
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Physical Characteristics of the Sun
7.3 Structure of the Sun – its Interior
7.3.1 The Core – Nuclear Reactions
7.3.2 The Radiative Layer
7.3.3 The Convective Layer
7.4 The Photosphere
7.4.1 Sunspots
7.5 The Solar Atmosphere
7.5.1 The Reversing Layer
7.5.2 The Chromosphere
7.5.3 The Corona
7.6 The SolarWind
7.7 The Search for Neutrinos
8 The Incoming Solar Radiation – Interaction with the Earth’s Atmosphere and
Surface
8.1 Introduction – the Solar Spectrum
8.2 Interactions with the Upper Atmosphere (Above 80 km)
xii Contents
8.2.1 Interaction with the Solar Wind: Polar Auroras
and Magnetic Storms
8.2.2 Interaction with the Solar Ultraviolet Radiation
8.3 The Mesosphere (50–80 km Layer)
8.4 Interaction with Ozone: the Ozonosphere (20–50 km)
8.4.1 Formation of Ozone
8.4.2 Destruction of Ozone: the Ozone Hole
8.4.3 Warming of the Stratosphere
8.4.4 Latitudinal and Seasonal Variation of Ozone
8.4.5 Ozone and Weather
8.5 Scattering, Reflection and Absorption of Solar Radiation in the Atmosphere
8.5.1 Scattering and Reflection
8.5.2 Atmospheric Absorption
8.6 Incoming Solar Radiation (Insolation) at the Earth’s Surface .
8.6.1 The Solar Constant
8.6.2 The Transparency of the Atmosphere – Effects of Clouds and Aerosols
8.6.3 Distribution of Solar Radiation with Latitude – The Seasonal Cycle
8.6.4 Seasonal and Latitudinal Variations of Surface Temperature
8.6.5 Diurnal Variation of Radiation with Clear and Cloudy Skies
8.7 Reflection of Solar Radiation at the Earth’s Surface – The Albedo
9 Heat Balance of the Earth’s Surface – Upward and Downward Transfer of Heat
9.1 Introduction: General Considerations
9.2 Heat Balance on a Planet Without an Atmosphere
9.3 Heat Balance on a Planet with an Atmosphere: The Greenhouse Effect
9.3.1 The Greenhouse Effect
9.4 Vertical Transfer of Radiative Heating – Diurnal Temperature Wave
9.5 Sensible Heat Flux
9.5.1 Vertical Transfer of Sensible Heat into the Atmosphere
9.6 Evaporation and Evaporative Heat Flux from a Surface
9.6.1 Bowen’s Ratio
9.6.2 Evaporative Cooling
9.7 Exchange of Heat Between the Earth’s Surface and the Underground Soil
9.7.1 Amplitude and Range
9.7.2 Time Lag
9.7.3 Velocity
9.7.4 Wavelength
9.7.5 DiurnalWave
9.7.6 Annual Wave
9.8 Radiative Heat Flux into the Ocean
9.8.1 General Properties of Ocean Water
9.8.2 Optical Properties of Ocean Water – Reflection and Refraction
9.8.3 Absorption and Downward Penetration of Solar Radiation in the Ocean
9.8.4 Vertical Distribution of Temperature in the Ocean
9.9 The Thermohaline Circulation – Buoyancy Flux
9.10 Photosynthesis in the Ocean: Chemical and Biological Processes
10 Heat Balance of the Earth-Atmosphere System – Heat Sources and Sinks
10.1 Introduction – definition of heat sources and sinks
10.2 Physical Processes Involved in Heat Balance
10.3 Simpson’s Computation of Heat Budget
10.4 Heat Balance from Satellite Radiation Data
10.5 Heat Sources and Sinks from the Energy Balance Equation
10.6 Computation of Atmospheric Heating from Mass Continuity Equation
Part II Dynamics of the Earth’s
Atmosphere – The General Circulation

11 Winds on a Rotating Earth – The Dynamical Equations and the Conservation
Laws
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Forces Acting on a Parcel of Air
11.2.1 Pressure Gradient Force
11.2.2 Gravity Force
11.2.3 Force of Friction or Viscosity
11.3 Acceleration of Absolute Motion
11.4 Acceleration of Relative Motion
11.4.1 Coriolis Force
11.5 The Equations of Motion in a Rectangular Co-ordinate System
11.6 A System of Generalized Vertical Co-ordinates
11.7 The Equations of Motion in Spherical Co-ordinate System
11.8 The Equation of Continuity
11.9 The Thermodynamic Energy Equation
11.10 Scale Analysis and Simplification of the Equations of Motion
11.10.1 The Geostrophic Approximation and the Geostrophic Wind
11.10.2 Scale Analysis of the Vertical Momentum Equation
12 Simplified Equations of Motion – Quasi-Balanced Winds
12.1 Introduction
12.2 The Basic Equations in Isobaric Co-ordinates
12.2.1 Horizontal Momentum Equations
12.2.2 The Continuity Equation
12.2.3 The Thermodynamic Energy Equation
12.3 Balanced Flow in Natural Co-ordinates
12.3.1 Velocity and Acceleration in Natural Co-ordinate System
12.3.2 The GradientWind
12.3.3 The Geostrophic Wind
12.3.4 Relationship Between the Geostrophic Wind and the GradientWind
12.3.5 InertialMotion
12.3.6 Cyclostrophic Motion
12.4 Trajectories and Streamlines
12.5 Streamline-Isotach Analysis
12.6 Variation ofWind with Height – The ThermalWind
13 Circulation, Vorticity and Divergence
13.1 Definitions and Concepts – Circulation and Vorticity
13.2 The Circulation Theorem
13.3 Absolute and Relative Vorticity
13.4 Vorticity and Divergence in Natural Co-ordinates
13.5 Potential Vorticity
13.6 The Vorticity Equation in Frictionless Adiabatic Flow
13.7 The Vorticity Equation fromthe Equations ofMotion
13.7.1 Vorticity Equation in Cartesian Co-ordinates (x, y, z)
13.7.2 The Vorticity Equation in Isobaric Co-ordinates
13.8 Circulation and Vorticity in the Real Atmosphere (In Three Dimensions)
13.9 Vertical Motion in the Atmosphere
13.9.1 The kinematicMethod
13.9.2 The AdiabaticMethod
13.9.3 The VorticityMethod
13.10 Differential Properties of a Wind Field
13.10.1 Translation, (u0,v0)
13.10.2 Divergence, Expansion (D)
13.10.3 Deformation
13.10.4 Rotation
13.11 Types of Wind Fields – Graphical Representation
14 The Boundary Layers of the Atmosphere and the Ocean
14.1 Introduction
14.2 The Equations of Turbulent Motion in the Atmosphere
14.3 The Mixing-Length Hypothesis – Exchange Co-efficients
14.4 The Vertical Structure of the Frictionally-Controlled Boundary Layer
14.4.1 The Surface Layer
14.4.2 The Ekman or Transition Layer
14.5 The Secondary Circulation – The Spin-Down Effect
14.5.1 The Nocturnal Jet
14.5.2 Turbulent Diffusion and Dispersion in the Atmosphere
14.6 The Boundary Layer of the Ocean – Ekman Drift and Mass Transport
14.7 Ekman Pumping and Coastal Upwelling in the Ocean
15 Waves and Oscillations in the Atmosphere and the Ocean
15.1 Introduction
15.2 The Simple Pendulum
15.3 Representation ofWaves by Fourier Series
15.4 Dispersion ofWaves and Group Velocity

15.5 The Perturbation Technique
15.6 Simple Wave Types
15.7 Internal Gravity (or Buoyancy) Waves in the Atmosphere
15.7.1 Internal Gravity (Buoyancy) Waves – General Considerations
15.7.2 Mountain Lee Waves
15.8 Dynamics of Shallow Water Gravity Waves
15.8.1 The Adjustment Problem – Shallow Water Equations in a Rotating Frame
15.8.2 The Steady-State Solution: Geostrophic Adjustment
15.8.3 Energy Transformations
15.8.4 Transient Oscillations – Poicar´eWaves
15.8.5 Importance of the Rossby Radius of Deformation
16 Equatorial Waves and Oscillations
16.1 Introduction
16.2 The Governing Equations in Log-Pressure Co-ordinate System
16.2.1 The Horizontal Momentum Equations
16.2.2 The Hydrostatic Equation
16.2.3 The Continuity Equation
16.2.4 The Thermodynamic Energy Equation
16.3 The KelvinWave
16.4 TheMixed Rossby-GravityWave
16.5 Observational Evidence
16.6 The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO)
16.7 The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)
16.8 El Ni˜no-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
16.8.1 Introduction
16.8.2 El Ni˜no/La Ni˜na
16.8.3 Southern Oscillation (SO)
16.8.4 TheWalker Circulation – ENSO
16.8.5 Evidence of Walker Circulation in Global Data
16.8.6 Mechanism of ENSO?
17 Dynamical Models and Numerical Weather Prediction (N.W.P.)
17.1 Introduction – Historical Background
17.2 The Filtering of Sound and Gravity Waves
17.3 Quasi-Geostrophic Models
17.4 Nondivergent Models
17.5 Hierarchy of Simplified Models
17.5.1 One-Parameter Barotropic Model
17.5.2 A Two-Parameter Baroclinic Model
17.6 Primitive Equation Models
17.6.1 PE Model in Sigma Co-ordinates
17.6.2 A Two-Level Primitive Equation Model
17.6.3 Computational Procedure
17.7 Present Status of NWP
18 Dynamical Instability of Atmospheric Flows – Energetics and
Energy Conversions
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Inertial Instability
18.3 Baroclinic Instability
18.3.1 The Model
18.3.2 Special Cases of Baroclinic Instability
18.3.3 The Stability Criterion – Neutral Curve
18.4 VerticalMotion in Baroclinically UnstableWaves
18.5 Energetics and Energy Conversions in Baroclinic Instability
18.5.1 Definitions
18.5.2 Energy Equations for the Two-Level Quasi-Geostrophic Model
18.6 Barotropic Instability
18.7 Conditional Instability of the Second Kind (CISK)
19 The General Circulation of the Atmosphere
19.1 Introduction – Historical Background
19.2 Zonally-Averaged Mean Temperature and Wind Fields Over the Globe
19.2.1 Longitudinally-Averaged Mean Temperature and Wind Fields in Vertical
Sections
19.2.2 Idealized Pressure and Wind Fields at Surface Over the Globe in the
Three-Cell Model
19.3 Observed Distributions of Mean Winds and Circulations Over the Globe
19.4 Maintenance of the Kinetic Energy and Angular Momentum
19.4.1 The Kinetic Energy Balance of the Atmosphere
19.4.2 The Angular Momentum Balance – Maintenance
of the Zonal Circulation
19.5 Eddy-Transports
19.5.1 Eddy Flux of Sensible Heat
19.5.2 Eddy-Flux of Angular Momentum
19.5.3 Eddy-Flux of Water Vapour
19.5.4 Vertical Eddy-Transports
19.6 Laboratory Simulation of the General Circulation
19.7 Numerical Experiment on the General Circulation
Appendices
Appendix-1(A) Vector Analysis-Some Important Vector Relations
1.1 The Concept of a Vector
1.2 Addition and Subtraction of Vectors: Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar

1.3 Multiplication of Vectors
1.4 Differentiation of Vectors: Application to the Theory of Space Curves
1.5 Space Derivative of a Scalar Quantity. The Concept of a Gradient Vector
1.6 Del Operator,
1.7 Use of Del Operator in Different Co-ordinate Systems
1.7.1 Cartesian Co-ordinates (x,y,z)
1.7.2 Spherical Co-ordinates (λ, φ, r)
Appendix-1(B) Motion Under Earth’s Gravitational Force
Appendix-2 Adiabatic Propagation of Sound Waves
Appendix-3 Some Selected Thermodynamic Diagrams
Appendix-4 Derivation of the Equation for Saturation Vapour Pressure
Curve Taking into Account the Temperature Dependence of the Specific Heats
(After Joos, 1967)
Appendix-5 Theoretical Derivation of Kelvin’s Vapour Pressure Relation for
er/es
Appendix-6 Values of Thermal Conductivity Constants for a Few
Materials, Drawn from Sources, Including ‘International
Critical Tables’(1927), ‘Smithsonian Physical Tables’ (1934), ‘Landholt-Bornstein’
(1923–1936), McAdams’ (1942) and others
Appendix-7 Physical Units and Dimensions
Appendix-8 Some Useful Physical Constants and Parameters
References
Author Index
Subject Index
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namthinh2007

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Re: The Earth's Atmosphere

Bài gửi by namthinh2007 on Tue Mar 09, 2010 4:20 pm

woa, cuốn sách này hoành tráng wa mà không biết nội dung thế nào đây?Đọc xong chắc trình độ av của mình lên pro quá...Cố gắng phát huy cộng việc up sách lên nhe Oanh.


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codaipm12

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Re: The Earth's Atmosphere

Bài gửi by codaipm12 on Thu Mar 11, 2010 9:04 pm

sách có nhìu mà làm biếng up lắm.

giohungyen

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Re: The Earth's Atmosphere

Bài gửi by giohungyen on Sat Jun 01, 2013 10:05 pm

các anh chi ơi giúp em với
từ Parcel trong khí tượng có nghĩa là gì nhỉ

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Re: The Earth's Atmosphere

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